Type 2 Diabetes Treatment is a condition that arises due to factors such as a sedentary lifestyle, imbalanced eating habits, and genetic predisposition. Two important factors in the development of type 2 diabetes are the diminished effectiveness of insulin in the body and insulin resistance. It is commonly observed in overweight individuals. Genetic factors, obesity, and physical inactivity are contributing factors to the onset of type 2 diabetes. The triggering elements include insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion. Having a family history of diabetes increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Additionally, individuals who are obese, over the age of 45, have hypertension, or have thyroid problems are also at risk.

What Are the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes?

Common symptoms include frequent urination, excessive thirst, increased appetite or loss of appetite, dry mouth, weakness, fatigue, nocturnal urination, blurred vision, and itching.

In type 2 diabetes, insulin production is present, but due to certain reasons, the body cannot use it effectively. As a result, blood sugar levels remain consistently high. Elevated blood sugar levels can lead to damage in blood vessels and subsequently in organs. Individuals with type 2 diabetes are often overweight, making obesity a primary factor in this condition. Genetic predisposition to this issue requires careful attention to weight management, as the development of type 2 diabetes is possible. Type 2 diabetes progresses slowly and insidiously. Without showing any symptoms, high blood sugar levels can persist for many years, affecting an individual’s quality of life. This delayed onset of symptoms can lead to delayed diagnosis.

How is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

If fasting blood sugar is above 120 mg/dL or if blood sugar is above 200 mg/dL after glucose load, a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is made.

Early diagnosis of diabetes, before any organ damage occurs, allows for better management. With appropriate treatment, the individual’s discomforts will decrease, leading to an improved quality of life. In newly diagnosed diabetes, it would be incorrect to immediately discuss organ damage. However, if the diagnosis is delayed or elevated blood sugar levels are not taken seriously by the patient, the discussion of organ damage becomes relevant. Commonly affected organs are the eyes, kidneys, and cardiovascular system. Kidney tests, electrocardiograms (ECGs), exercise stress tests, and fundus examinations are performed to assess organ function.

What is the Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes?

Treatment primarily begins with a diabetes-appropriate diet. The patient is typically subjected to a physical exercise program. Insulin secretion is increased through diabetes-specific medications, allowing for the creation of insulin-like effects and regulation of absorption.

In untreated or non-compliant cases of type 2 diabetes, the patient may enter into a coma. Vital organs begin to deteriorate. Complications such as retinal hemorrhages and blindness, kidney dysfunction leading to the necessity of dialysis, arterial blockages, and increased risk of heart attacks due to sustained high blood sugar levels occur. Brain hemorrhages, strokes, gangrene, and even amputations can occur. To prevent type 2 diabetes, lifestyle changes must be made, weight should be managed, regular physical exercise should be incorporated, and prescribed medications should be taken diligently.

Difference Between Type 2 Diabetes and Type 1 Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, there is no insulin production; in type 2 diabetes, insulin production exists but is not effective. Insulin treatment is initiated from the beginning in type 1 diabetes, while type 2 diabetes focuses on managing insulin resistance through medications. Individuals with type 2 diabetes are generally middle-aged and overweight. Type 1 diabetes can affect anyone, including babies, children, adolescents, and the elderly.

In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen is crucial. Lifestyle changes, dietary adjustments, and exercise recommendations from the doctor should be followed consistently.